Nigeria is said to be a british creation by uniting the various nationalities into a single country today known as the federal republic of nigeria. Pdf nigeria is one of the major democracies in african continent. In 1991 and 1992, kpandai and its surrounding areas in presentday kpandai district in northern ghana were enmeshed in inter ethnic conflict between the gonja and the nawuri. Until now, the analysis made in this paper has been guided by the medicodiagnostic method of inquiry, an analytical approach that seeks to avoid one of the commonly committed fallacies of the century jumping to a conclusion or making a hasty decision.
One of the other crucial causes of ethnic conflict in nigeria is the introduction of sharia criminal legal system in some parts of northern nigeria. Nigeria has not been without its fair share of conflict. Radio and television interviews were the least media used. The roots of nigerias religious and ethnic conflict public radio. Theoretical perspective 79 languages, customs and traditions gives the country a rich cultural diversity. Since nigeria is a circular state, it should not have considered imposition of islamic sharia law on nonmuslims. In this address to participants at the presidential retreat on peace and conflict resolution, held in kuru, jos, governor abdullahi adamu advocates the economic empowerment of disadvantaged nigerians to halt their manipulation by unscrupulous politicians and other powerful individuals. Religious identity and conflict 3 countdown to the 2015 elections 9 conclusions 14 john paden religion and conflict in nigeria countdown to the 2015 elections special reportunited states institute of summary nigeria is by far the largest country in the worldwith a population of just over 180 mil. Pdf the article focuses on the interface between ethnicity and. Discussing conflicts in nigeria may require us to situate the clarification of the term conflict. A study by a german academic says religious conflicts in subsaharan africa have been on the rise for decades. Major causes of ethnoreligious conflicts in nigeria. Olayinka olabinpe ojo department of general studies.
Burton 1979 the human needs theory was introduced to debunk the other theories that attribute causes of conflict to the innately aggressive nature of human beings. The ethnic conflicts happen as a result of intolerance and inadequate relationship between the regions within the country. Conflict management in local government administration in nigeria oladoyin, anthony mayowa ph. However, what appears to be an ethnic conflict in nigeria is an actual fact of a struggle between the ruling class for the nations wealth.
Tribalism is one of the causes of ethnic conflict in nigeria. This seven year conflict and humanitarian crisis in the north has killed 20,000 and displaced 2. Nigeria suffers a variety of complex political problems including inequality, corruption, oil disputes, national disunity, and the boko haram insurgency. The causes of ethnic conflict in multiethnic societies.
It has been known to bring about all manner of outcomes from food shortages to prosperity. John burton 1990 the importance of this theory to ethnic conflict management in africa is that it moves beyond theories that blame african conflicts on a primordial past. Timelineethnic and religious unrest in nigeria reuters. Hence, conflict is unavoidable in human affairs because society is formed on the basis of conflict and conflict resolution to move forward and make individuals in it better persons.
Ethnic militias in nigeria and their impact on democratic. But incidence of ethnic violence was different in varying country. Conflict management in nigerian construction industry. Most recent interethnic clashes in nigeria, according to osaghae and. An average nigerian often sees his own tribe as being superior to others. It also made sense to merge a revenuechallenged colonial territory with a prosperous colonial neighbor, so the latter can subsidize the former. Pdf ethnic crises and national security in nigeria researchgate. Unlike other forms of social conflicts, ethnoreligious conflict entails different ethnic groups that belong to different religions. Resourcerelated conflict in nigeria revolves around oil with about 95% of violent conflict in nigeria since 1997 being.
The effect of institutional arrangements on ethnic conflict in nigeria. At a global scale, the conflict presents itself in a way where there is a large economic impact. Ethnic conflicts are very common and they bring about damage to lives and properties. Mar 10, 2014 modern nigeria emerged through the merging of two british colonial territories in 1914. Northern nigeria is little understood by those in the south, still less by the international community. Ethnocentrism and ethnopolitical conflicts in northern. An analysis of the conflict and cooperation 19702004 jonathan oluropo familugba department of history school of arts and social sciences college of education ikere ekiti, ekiti state post office box 1781 adoekiti post office ekiti state, nigeria. Ethnic conflict and sustainable development in nigeria. That is exactly what we are facing now with the biafra region. The ethnic militias effect on democratic consolidation.
A history of identities, violence, and stability in nigeria by eghosa e. Jul 10, 20 why a terrifying religious conflict is raging in nigeria in the countrys socalled middle belt, 785 people have died in the past two years, and the government is doing little to stop it. The attempt to break away ultimately failed, and nigeria reintegrated the igbo majority region in 1970. Pdf on jan 1, 2015, hilal wani and others published ethnic conflict, democracy and good governance. Traditionally, ethnic nationalism typifies a sense of identity, national pride and solidarity, to mention a few. Case of nigeria find, read and cite all the research.
This paper explored ethnic conflicts in nigeria and participatory democracy. Management of organizational conflict in nigeria polytechnics. Communal conflicts in nigeria can be divided into two broad categories. Cultural concepts of political legitimacy, the rule of law and rights to land, differ markedly, resulting in a pluralistic state with few shared values. Developing country management ethnic conflict by participation and justice policy that the equality is the best way for resolve this problem. Managing ethnic and cultural diversity for national integration in. Researcher matthias basedau says weak african states are a major cause. This is not unconnected with the lucrativeness of local government system in nigeria. Causes and solution nigerians are very sensitive when it comes to their ethnic groups. From the colonial times till date, leaders use ethnic biases to win election and divide the country. Ethnic struggles and conflicts in nigeria with timeline.
The roots of nigerias religious and ethnic conflict public. This article examines the framing of ethnic conflict in northeast india, focusing on militant groups and insurgency in the hill areas of assam and a form of. Umoren and olokoyo 2007 studied merger and acquisition in nigeria. More fundamentally, preventing and resolving conflict in the far north will require far better management of public resources, an end to their distribution according to ethnic identity and jobcreating economic revival. Nigeria s ethnic fulani herders are said to be the worlds fourth deadliest militant group the bbcs naziru mikailu asks who they are and what they are fighting for. Hocker and wilmot 1985 say conflict can have highly desirable, productive functions in a relationship. Introduction nigeria is usually characterised as a deeply divided state in which major political issues are vigorously some would say violently contested along the lines of the complex. Why a terrifying religious conflict is raging in nigeria. This increased the frequency of group and individual interactions in a multiethnic polity, exacerbating the phenomenon of ethnicity and ethnic conflicts. Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the niger delta region. A symposium on religious conflict in nigeria may 8, 2007 nigeria is the largest country in the world with an evenly split population of christians.
May 10, 2018 the merger of the northern and southern protectorates of nigeria in 1914, by the british colonial governor, lord lugard, unified the different ethnonationalities into the nation nigeria. Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the niger delta. It is believed in some quarters that conflict is a good instrument for resolving crisis in the society provided that it is not allowed to escalate into violence. A, deputy west africa project director jeanherve jezequel and research assistant hamza cherbib say that jihadist violence cannot be divorced from deeper intercommunal tensions related to local. Statement of problem bakassi peninsula is one of the boundary conflicts that attracted a lot of attention in african continent and international community. A history of identities, violence, and stability in nigeria. A conflict is a situation between two or more people in which one person perceives that another person has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, holmes, 2010. Nigeria is a multiethnic and culturally diverse society that has witnessed conflicts.
Niger has also become the home to hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing the violence of both the boko haram insurgency in the lake chad basin, and the continuing conflict in northern mali. However, conflict is a part of our human existence. Loyalty to ethnic groups impedes true nationalism and unity of the country. The key causes and solution to ethnic conflict in nigeria. Mar 10, 2010 sectarian conflict erupted most profoundly in 1967, when three primarily igbo eastern states seceded under the name republic of biafra, sparking a bloody threeyear civil war. With several coups, general strikes and a civil war, nigerians have had to experience some of the most sordid tragedies arising from difference of opinions and distrust. Ethnic conflict and national stability in nigeria pdf. For many years northern region of ghana has been in a state of turmoil and atrophy due to intermittent inter ethnic conflicts over a broad layer of issues. Civil conflict has been known to leave people with little or no time to practice farming hence causing food shortages. Religious conflicts in nigeria world socialist web site. Over the past few years thousands of people have been killed in ethnic clashes. Poverty is at the root of some of the ethnic crises nigeria faces.
Nongovernmental organizations ngos, conflict and peace. Making sense of nigerias fulanifarmer conflict bbc news. It occurred mainly because british colonizers desired a. Aug 30, 2005 the national question in nigeria is probably one of the most complicated in the world with over 120 languages spoken, three main ethnic groups, none of which constitutes a majority of the population, and the religious divide between christians in the south and muslims in the north. Cold and warm is a term i coined in order to classify the firms in which ethnic conflict occur in nigeria. Project managers view olalekan ogunbayo department of building technology, lagos state polytechnic, ikorodu, lagos state. The roots of nigerias religious and ethnic conflict. In fact, no decade of postindependent nigeria has been conflict free. Jan 30, 2012 view conflict in nigeria in a larger map. It occurred mainly because british colonizers desired a contiguous colonial territory stretching from the arid sahel to the atlantic coast, and because northern nigeria, one of the merging units.
The study revealed lack of established library policy on conflict management information services as the major problems affecting library services for conflict resolution with the highest variable score 3. Against this background, this paper examines the dominant causes of boundary conflict between nigeria and cameroun, with particular reference to the bakassi peninsula. Nigeria is an oil rich country, but nearly twothirds of the population lives in poverty and makes less. A deadly ambush near the nigermali border on 4 october claimed the lives of at least five nigerien soldiers and marked the unprecedented killing of american forces in the region.
Abstract conflict in local government administration has become not only visible in recent times bul volatile. Religious conflicts in nigeria by barry mason and chris talbot 28 february 2000 violent religious clashes broke out in the city of kaduna in northern nigeria on february 21 and have continued. The merger of the northern and southern protectorates of nigeria in 1914, by the british colonial governor, lord lugard, unified the different ethnonationalities into the nation nigeria. The article also assumes that, it is significant to note the influence of politicization of ethnicity, selective injustice and elite manipulation in conflict analysis in nigeria.
Federalism and groupbased inequalities in nigeria global centre. Causes of conflict in nigeria and ways of resolving them. Pdf ethnic conflict, democracy and good governance. It is essential to advert that both religious and ethnic causal agents have always acted together in the majority of social conflicts in nigeria. How effective is the federal character commission in nigeria. Ethnoreligious conflicts, attributed to actors primarily divided by cultural, ethnic, or religious communities and identities, such as instances of religious violence between christian and muslim communities. A need for true federalism peaceful and prosperous in nigeria article pdf available november 20 with 9,748 reads how we measure reads. Federal character commission fcc, set up in nigeria to oversee the process. In developing country incidence were low and in the developing sever. Religious conflicts on the rise in africa africa dw. Jan 24 reuters following is a timeline of religious and ethnic violence in nigeria over the last 10 years. Analysis of performance pre and post consolidation of thirteen mega banks in order to consider if there had been improvements. The amalgamation was an act of colonial convenience. Interethnic conflicts and their impact on national.393 229 33 655 896 540 1557 1439 1539 695 1530 1338 952 392 990 516 1625 364 1051 455 1240 342 1410 634 1601 315 1611 1616 1212 1620 687 1450 681 1373 1132 653 1439 738 55 146 974 768